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This article in a nutshell states:

  • Terminologies related to MikuMikuDance are defined below.
Contributes are free to make additions and corrections.


32 bit

In computers, 32 bits pertain to the amount of memory it can allocate. A 32 bit memory system (and processor) can address the maximum of 4 gigabytes. (reduced to 3 gb as the other 1 gb is allocated to system resources)

Examples of 32 bit operating systems include Windows NT, 98, ME, 2000, XP, Vista, 7 and 8. Certain Linux and UNIX are also known to have operated in 32 bit memory architecture, but has since shifted to 64 bits.

64 bit

64-bit computing is the use of processors that have datapath widths, integer size, and memory addresses of 64 bits (eight octets) wide. Also, 64-bit CPU and ALU architectures are those that are based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. From the software perspective, 64-bit computing means the use of code with 64-bit virtual memory addresses.

64 bit systems can address a maximum of 18.4 exabytes. (That's way above terrabyte and petabyte!)

Having an application run at 64 bits has implications on the performance and capability. It can process more files, information and other tasks more than 32 bit.

Because of this, many software that heavily utilizes system resources are migrated to 64 bit architecture, if not given a parallel 64 bit version, to utilize resources more efficiently, and in some cases, do more, in the least time possible.

64 bit migration was impeded by device driver compatibility, the inability to run 16 bit applications (a problem seen in Windows) and in the past, hardwares with restrictive pricing. Many of these problems have since been addressed.

1st Place

1st PLACE Co., Ltd. business is the development, management and use of musical works, such as albums. They released the Vocaloid: IA.

式 (shiki)

Shiki is kanji that will often be seen at the end of a model creators name and combined with the name of a model. Its various meanings are: expression, form, style, type. Indicating that the "style" or "type" of model is by said creator or the model was modified using said creators model base.

For example: Lat式ミク (Lat-type Miku), ミクLat式 (Miku Lat style).


3D, or three dimensional, is a method of displaying an object by visually representing the depth and perspective of an object by taking into account, the length, width, and height. Hence, the term. 3D models can be manipulated in a manner that their display angles could be changed at the user's will. It was developed to simplify display of an object that would take too much resources in a conventional two-dimensional method of display. (2D)


4shared is a free file and image hosting web site, used largely for its convenience to store large amounts of files and its privacy as well as file share ability. It is uncommonly used for MMD model links.



AH-Software Co. is an importer of digital audio workstation and encoders in Tokyo, Japan. It is also known as the developer of Voiceroid Tukuyomi series. They released the Vocaloids: SF-A2 miki, Kaai Yuki, Hiyama Kiyoteru, Nekomura Iroha and Yuzuki Yukari.


Animation is the act of making an object move by providing a sequence of movements that when consecutively executed, creates the illusion of motion.


In terms of MMD, an author is another way to refer to a modeler.

Avex Management

Avex Management is a subsidiary of Avex Group Holding Inc.. They collaborated with Yamaha Corporation to develop the Vocaloid Lily.


AVI (Audio Video Interleave) - A container format for movies. Most videos may bear this file extension, but its codec may vary greatly.



Popularized from DeviantArt, a base is an object stripped down to its fundamental form, leaving only the posture and basic elements that would be presumably common. Even body hair (of all forms) are removed, leaving only the bare body and facial expression.

Bases have seen heavy criticism in regards to usage, as it is claimed to be borderline plagiarism, with the user only needing to fill in unique details; the posture is already provided by the base.

In MikuMikuDance, a base model is also a model stripped down to a naked model. Usage policy towards base models are unfavorable, as the base model can be exploited in abusive scenarios.


Blender is a free open source 3D graphics application, available under the GNU General Public License.


Bplats, Inc. is an application service provider in Tokyo, Japan. It runs web portals on ASP, SaaS and cloud computing and an online store to sell software and hardware, such as the Yamaha Vocaloid series. They developed the Vocaloids: VY1 and VY2. And in collaboration with Vocaloid: China project, Tianyi Luo.

Bowl Roll

Bowl Roll is a free file and images hosting website, used largely for its convenience to store large amounts of files. Appearing recently as an option for Japanese MMD community to download and upload models.



A codec ([en]Coder/decoder) is a file compression technology used for movies. Many codecs have been developed over the years, and as such, plenty are available for use. Their purpose is to keep the filesize small while retaining a lot of the movie quality, if not being completely lossless.


In terms of MMD, a creator is another way to refer to a modeler.


Crypton Future Media Inc. is an importer of sound devices in Sapporo, Japan. They released the Vocaloids: Meiko, Kaito, Miku Hatsune , Rin Kagamine, Len Kagamine, and Luka Megurine.


Dear Stage

Dear Stage (Moe Japan, Co. Ltd.) is said to be a music company, it appears many of their goal is to produce idol singers. They released the Vocaloid: Rion Tone.
Criteria needed for this section


DL is shorthand for "Download"


DirectX is a bundled set of technologies specific to Microsoft Windows. It was first introduced in Windows 95, to provide software developers a direct access to hardware, within the operating system, without the need to write custom programming. Using DirectX improves the performance of applications, especially on those that heavily relies on graphics and sound.

DirectX is prominently used in games (and much recently in browsers), despite the existence of competing technologies like SDL and OpenGL.

MikuMikuDance itself uses DirectX9 technologies to accelerate the performance of the modeling software, particularly on powerful systems.


Distribute is the act of handing out a product. In terms of MMD, it is when a model creator allows their creations to be for public use. The public being those who have internet access or technology that allows them to download and use models, stages, props etc.

Section requires expansion



Ecapsule Co., Ltd is an importer and producer of digital audio workstation and encoders in Taiwan. This company is also known as a distributor of Vocaloids: Sonika, Prima, Tonio produced by Zero-G and Sweet Ann, Big Al from PowerFX.


Edit (Edit(s)(ed)(ing) ) the dictionary states one of the meanings: To modify or adapt so as to make suitable or acceptable.

In the MMD community the term 'editing' is used to describe the action of assembling a model by use of other models. As described by "Frankenstein(ing) Models", which is not commonly used by 3D modelers as it is more common with Pixel Doll makers.

While some model creators allow editing of their work without credit, it is respectful to acknowledged and list the parts used to create a 'New Comer'. Many models created by non-Japanese are primarily done by editing.

Edit Rape

A term by Western users to describe the act of editing a model for the purpose of creating another model. In addition to the term, it is to described 'editing' as a disrespectful action and meant to demean those who edit 'New Comer' models without using the model for its intended purpose.

Some users believe that regardless of a modeler allowing editing and distributed edits of their work, they feel the work of the modeler is being passed over in favor of knowing if any of the newcomers parts can be used for their own agenda.

Exit Tunes

EXIT TUNES is the record label of Quake Inc., a Japanese company. They are known for releasing popular Vocaloid albums. They also released the Vocaloid: Mayu.


In MMD, PMX models accepts "expressions" to dynamically change attributes, appearance and visibility, among others, of a model, without the need of creating a separate model. They are applicable to models that allows certain variations of appearances. Such examples include eyeglasses, facial expressions, color, body attributes, and so on.

Technically, expressions hold an entirely different meaning in computers. In Computer Science, expression is a method of representing data, be it strings, boolean, integer or float values using variable values, constants and their values, programming variables, operators, and functions to calculate and evaluate a particular equation comprising of the aformentioned. Expressions are often used to simplify programming and to produce dynamic values and effects.

For instance, expressions allow a value held by a predefined function to be directly parsed without the need to allocate its value to a variable first.


Frankenstein(ing) Models

Termed after the monster of the same name for being built using different body parts, a model is considered frankensteined if it was built using different body parts from the parts of multiple models.

While the term is not necessarily derogatory by itself, it can be a cause of concern if the creator of the frankensteined model does not credit sources properly.




Internet Co.

Internet Co., Ltd. is a company producing sound effects, loops and digital audio workstation in Osaka, Japan. They released the Vocaloids: Gackpoid Gakupo Kamui, Megpoid Gumi, Lily, Gachapoid Ryuto. And in collaboration with VOCALO Revolution, CUL and in a similar case with Stardust Music for Galaco.

i-Style Project

i-style Project is a collaboration project for Vocaloid3. It is headed by the animation Studio DEEN and doujin e-retailer Surfersparadise. They released the Vocaloids: Lapis Aoki and Merli.



Ki/oon Records

Ki/oon Records Inc. is a Japanese record label, a subsidiary of Sony Music Japan. They released the Vocaloid: Piko Utatane.



Lawson, Inc. is a food mart company now located in Japan. For promotional purposes they own the Vocaloid: Akikoloid-chan.

Loda is a free file and images hosting website, used largely for its convenience to store large amounts of files and its privacy as well as file share ability. Favored among the Japanese MMD community thus many original and quality MMD models will be linked from this site. Fairly recently Western MMD community began to considering linking their models from here.

Lossy Compression

Movies compressed under low quality conditions that causes it to lose much of its detail. Sometimes this is done to keep filesize small.

Lossless Compression

Certain codecs can provide lossless compression, depending on quality settings and compression. Lossless compression allows faithful visual and audio quality, at the cost of larger filesize. In this day and age where filesizes and bandwith are not much of a concern, processing lossless videos, on the other hand, can be taxing to encode and decode, depending on the codec being used.

LZH file format

LZH is a file name extension that is short for Lempel-Ziv-Huffman. This type of compressed file is not commonly supported - most of the big compression programs require separate plugins to extract or create LZH files. Nevertheless, many software authors appear to favour LZH compression, and it is particularly popular in Japan. (reference}



In terms of MMD, a maker is another way to refer to a modeler.


MediaFire is a free file and image hosting web site, used largely for its convenience to store large amounts of files and its privacy as well as file share ability. Favored among the Western MMD community thus many MMD models will be linked from this site.


An online bookstore that sells doujin materials such as fan-made comics, music, and 3d data.

Miku Miku Dance

Miku Miku Dance (abbreviated as "MMD") is a program used to make 3D models move in an computer generated environment.


MMDZip is a very useful program developed in the Chinese MMD fanbase. It is basically a combo of Applocale and 7zip .It allows de-compression with the kana names kept. Moreover, if a zip contains a Japanese password, it offers the ability to convert the password as well, making the extraction much easier and with less headaches.

Software link


Mob (モブ) characters are generic characters in any setting that have no name or personality, usually enemies or NPCs. Some modelers specialize in making mob characters for use in MMD to fill a setting, be it fantasy or modern.

See also: Mob (gaming)


Models (MMDモデル) pertain to a 3D object usable in MikuMikuDance. They can be opened in the program and users can pose, animate or modify said models. Models usable in MikuMikuDance are stored in the PMX or PMD format.


A modeler is a person who creates models.

Moe Japan

Dear Stage (Moe Japan, Co. Ltd.) is said to be a music company, it appears many of their goal is to produce idol singers. They released the Vocaloid: Rion Tone.
Criteria needed for this section


Newcomer (新人)

The dictionary describes it as: A person or thing that has recently arrived in a place or joined a group.

In the MMD community, it is to describe the arrival of a newly created model displayed to the public. A majority of the time the model is up for download and use by the community. The term was primarily used by the Japanese community, then it eventually caught on with Westerns as the PMD Editor became more known.

The usage originally applied to models created from scratch with PMD Editor only being used for finishing touches. It has now become a blended term used for any new model created for public use, or display or even 'work in progress' models. Some modelers who create models by editing chose not to label their released models with this title, as they feel it doesn't apply to edits.

Nico Nico Douga

Nico Nico Douga (NND) is a popular video sharing website in Japan managed by Niwango, a subsidiary of Dwango. Its nickname is "Niconico", where "nikoniko" is the Japanese ideophone for smiling. The site has been a provider for many amateur and professional Vocaloid music producers, also a number of MMD models debut there.

Nico Nico Douga previously has an independent English counterpart, which not only accepts videos from its sister site NND, but from Youtube and DailyMotion as well. Now, the main website has complete provisions for English users, although cross-language commenting falls under a separate system and must be configured beforehand.

Nightmare Fuel

Connected to Vocaloid fandom (and also other fandoms) is this terminology; anything or anybody with a disturbing figure, mannerism or scenery that is potent enough to leave lingering horrible impressions in the mind is considered a nightmare fuel. Mikudayo, Calne Ca and similar characters are considered Nightmare Fuels by themselves. However, creating Nightmare Fuel content for Vocaloid does not necessarily require disturbing characters.

Nightmare Fuel, High Octane

Anything that is exceedingly horrible than being a mere Nightmare Fuel is considered as a High Octane Nightmare Fuel. It is considered the worst of the worst. It embeds to one's memory so firmly that it affects a person profoundly.



The term "original" is used by Western users when they want to inform viewers that their model was created by use of a 3D program. The model contains texture, artwork, and pixel work by the modeler, so it is not made of assembled parts from other models which were created by other people.

Original character

Abbreviated as OC, original characters are those created by an artists or writer to be used as the protagonist of a story. Often, OCs are used as mascots with no story relating to their existence.


PMD Editor

PMD Editor is a separate program from MikuMikuDance used as a way for model creators to assemble models.

PMD File Format

PMD (Polygon Model Data) is the prime file format 3D objects in MikuMikuDance are stored in. They have primitive capabilities in comparison to a more-advanced file format, PMX.

PMM File Format

PMM (Polygon Movie Maker) is the internal name of the multi-model version of MikuMikuDance (version 5.39 and higher). The PMM file is the project file that stores information about which models are used in the movie and the position of bones at each keyframe for each model. The PMM file format is incompatible with the MMD file format, which is used in the original version of MikuMikuDance (version 1.03).

PMX File Format

PMX (Polygon Model eXtend) is the next-generation file format 3D objects in MikuMikuDance are stored in. They have advanced capabilities such as the ability to use Expressions in altering the properties and attributes of a 3D model.


  1. The manner a model is arranged to achieve a desired look and figure.
  2. A method of creating a desired scenery for use as a single static images. People unfamiliar to MikuMikuDance animation will usually start by posing models to create a scenery.


PowerFX Systems AB is a small recording company, based in Stockholm, Sweden. This company has been producing music samples, loops and sound effects since 1995. They released the Vocaloids: Sweet Ann and Big Al. And in collaboration with VocaTone, Oliver.


In terms of MMD, a producer is another way to refer to a modeler. To elaborate it could also encompass those who use MMD to produce videos for music featuring Vocaloid.

Promotional Video

Promotional Video (acronym as PV) is a term often used in Japanese and it is what is called music video(MV), music clip or video clip in English. They can be considered similar to MAD/AMV (movie anime dojinshi/anime music video) works, and some PVs even claim to be these.

Common abbreviations Fanmade PV from Vocaloid Fanmade Promotion Video.



In moviemaking lingo, quality refers to how much details are present in a rendered movie. This is done in a careful balance of compression, filesize and details.



RapidShare is a free file and image hosting web site, used largely for its convenience to store large amounts of files and its privacy as well as file share ability. It is not highly favored site for the Western MMD community but is used. Some find its interface confusing when it comes to downloading.

RAR file format

RAR stands for Roshal ARchive. It is an archive file format that supports data compression, error recovery, and file spanning. Known for moderately better rate of compression than ZIP. RAR files may be created and uncompressed with commercial software WinRAR.

Online methods to convert RAR files are: Convert.Files, WobZIP and Unzip-online


A readme (or read me) file contains information about other files in a directory or archive and is very commonly distributed with computer software. Such a file is usually a text file called README.TXT, README.1ST, READ.ME, or simply README.

In the MMD community a readme.txt is a notepad format text file that contains information about a model, accessory, stage. The readme will commonly contain a set of rules and guidelines to follow when it comes to usage of a downloaded work. Failure to adhere to these rules could cause a Model creator to pull their works from the public.

Rin Rin Dance

Rin Rin Dance (abbreviated as "RRD") is a deprecated program used to make 3D models move in an computer generated environment. It was created before multi-model upgrade to Miku Miku Dance, thus rendering it obsolete in purpose.


The process of taking data from sources such as video games. 3D models ripped from video games are called "ripped models." The Western community has taken ripped models and converted them for use in MikuMikuDance akin to Garry's Mod. However, since these models were made by corporations such as Nintendo and Square Enix, there is a legal issue present.

Japanese users refer to ripped models as ぶっこ抜きモデル and often forbid the use of ripped models with their own created models to avoid legal trouble.



Sanrio Co., Ltd. is a company famously known for its Hello Kitty franchise. In 2010 a project was formed and a character from the project became the mascot for a Vocaloid release, that being Iroha Nekomura.

SBS Artech

SBS Artech Co,. Ltd. is an art studio by an entertainment company called SBS (Seoul Broadcasting System), one of the major three broadcasting company in South Korea. They released the Vocaloid: SeeU.

Shanghai He Nian

Shanghai He Nian Information Technology Co. Ltd. is a small, Chinese company that has ties to the larger Japanese company, Bplats, Inc.. They head the project; Vocaloid: China featuring Tianyi Luo.

SPH / SPA File

SPH and SPA files are sphere map files. These are generally Windows bitmap (BMP) images which are either multiplied with (SPH) or added to (SPA) the material's texture. A given material in a model may have a texture file, a sphere map file, or both.

Stock Models

In MikuMikuDance Wiki, Stock Models refer to any models that comes with the MikuMikuDance software upon downloading. They are also referred to as Beginner, Starter, or Default Models, citing their usefulness as starting points for would-be model creators and editors. To encourage model creation among interested users, these stock models are intentionally redistributable and editable, to the point that users can create characters of their own from modifying these stock models.



Textures are the "skin" of a 3D-model, which gives the 3D model its recognized figure and likeness. Properly-implemented textures can result in a life-like appearance.


Tweening is the act of adding visual details to an animation with the intention of making the movement fluid and lifelike in transition. They serve to fill in movement gaps. (The word is a root form of the word "between", pertaining to something in the middle of two objects.)



UL is shorthand for "Upload"


VMD File

VMD (Vocaloid Motion Data) files store the animation data for models used in MikuMikuDance. See the VMD file format article for more information.


Vocaloid is the trademark name of a synthesizer product. This singing synthesizer application software was developed by the Yamaha Corporation. It is currently up to its third engine, released in 2012.


Vocalomakets are a sub-division of AH-Software and work with them to produce Vocaloids with very focused goals. They released the Vocaloid (also Voiceroid): Yukari Yuzuki.


Vocacaloid Next is a circle (or doujin group) that has taken on development of "Everyone's Vocaloid Project". Under their development are the Vocaloids: Ring Suzune and Lui Hibiki.


VocaTone is a small company formed in America. Their involvement in Vocaloid is in connection with PowerFX's Vocaloid 3 development. They collaborated to release the Vocaloid: Oliver.

Voctro Labs

Voctro Labs, S.L. is a Spanish company whose goal is to provide voice synth-related technology. Their location is the 'origin' development of the Vocaloid software. They released the Vocaloids: Bruno and Clara.

VPD File

VPD (Vocaloid Pose Data)


The Vocaloid Promotion Video Project

  1. A website that hosts the current upgrade for MikuMikuDance software, which has tools for making Promotion Video of Vocaloid Series.
  2. A Japanese wiki that keeps track of MikuMikuDance models, stages, accessories, model creators etc.



Wav (RIFF waveform Audio Format), a PCM-based file format for audio sounds. Known for being the staple sound format for Windows, but was an issue in the past due to being very large in filesize. But as storage space grew larger, WAV files became integral and became useful especially in software and game development. WAV files do not have compression, and as such, does not lose sound quality. However, their filesize can increase to large numbers, which can be a cause of concern.

Windows 100%

Windows 100% is an Otaku aimed magazine that provides information, software apps, tips, and interviews on the latest happenings in PC Culture, it is distributed by the Shinyusha company. The magazine is known to include CD-ROMs that are filled with tons of extras such as game demos and promo software.

This magazine has been known to feature MMD models by popular modelers. And due to these features, the magazine has caught on with many in the MMD community. Windows100% has been mistakenly labeled as being 'fan created' by MikuMikuDance fans, however, this is false; the magazine itself has no specific ties to MikuMikuDance and simply reports on popular events involving the MMD community.

Windows, Microsoft

Windows is an Operating System for IBM-class computers, commonly installed in many PCs. Its first version, Windows 1.0, started as an attached program from DOS. This system was maintained until Windows 2000, where it became a self-contained operating system. The current windows version released is Windows 10, released last July of 2015.

MikuMikuDance is primarily developed for the Windows operating system. Unofficial methods to make it work in other operating systems like Linux and Mac OS exists, but with mixed results.




Yamaha Corporation is a Japanese leading musical instrument manufacturer based on Hamamatsu. This company covers a wide range of business in motorcycles, power sports equipment, and electronics. Yamaha started the development of the Vocaloid engine in March 2000 and announced it in 2003. This is the sampling and re-editing of the real singing voice. Vocaloids: Mew


YouTube (YT) is a video-sharing website on which users can upload, share and view videos, created by three former PayPal employees in February 2005. Being one of the most popular and convenient to work with video sites it has a number of MMD model dance videos by Western community. A number of Nico Nico Douga reprints can be found.



Zero-G Ltd is a company developing sound libraries, sound effects and loops. This company provides its products for many digital audio workstations. They released the Vocaloids: Leon, Lola, Miriam, Prima, Sonika, Tonio, and Avanna.

ZIP file format

ZIP is an archiving file format used to compress data in the smallest file possible. The format was first seen in the shareware application PKZIP. It has since become a defacto archiving format, even recognized natively by Microsoft Windows.

Online methods to convert ZIP files are: Convert.Files and WobZIP

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